I often have parents say to me that their child has reading difficulties and they wonder if there is any other cause apart from Dyslexia known as a Specific Learning Disorder in Reading. There are many reasons that your child may have reading difficulties that may be unrelated to having a Specific Learning Disorder. Firstly, assuming that there is no eyesight or hearing issues or developmental delays that may affect their ability to read, there are a number of other factors that may affect your child’s ability to read. Reading difficulties can occur through a lack of opportunity to learn (chronic health conditions which impact upon school attendance) which negatively impacts upon your child’s ability to engage in successful reading programs. Reading motivation has been demonstrated through research to negatively affect your child’s ability to read, which is often cyclical in nature. In other words, your child is likely to lack motivation to read if it seems too challenging and therefore this can negatively impact attempts to improve reading ability. In this situation, careful consideration is required to determine your child’s areas of interest and what will assist their motivation to read. There are a number of psychological disorders that can also negatively impact upon a child’s ability to read. When children present for a psycho-educational assessment they sometimes are suffering learning difficulties known as a Language Disorder. These children often have difficulties with reading as a consequence of difficulties understanding language or difficulties with speech which interfere with how they remember words they have just read. In a different way Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can affect a child’ ability to read. Firstly, ADHD can co-occur with a Specific Learning Disorder (Dyslexia) although it can also be diagnosed alone. In the latter a child’s reading difficulties may relate entirely to your child’s difficulties with maintaining focus or attention on a what they are reading. In other words, they may have the ability but struggle to stay focused on the word reading for any significant period resulting in them falling behind their peers if not treated. Alternatively, a child that has significant Intelligence difficulties such as a child with an Intellectual Disability may also have reading difficulties as a consequence of a more global learning delay across academic, social and adaptive (life skills) areas. Therefore, it is essential that as a parent or carer of your child you are aware of the reasons for your child’s reading difficulties so that the appropriate support can be provided such as a child may benefit from consulting with a Speech Therapist if they have a Speech or Language Disorder. Lastly, a thorough Psycho-educational assessment can provide a detailed understanding of the reasons that your child has reading difficulties and recommendations to assist the reading ability.
I often have parents say to me that there child has previously seen a psychologist but they completed an Intelligence Test (often referred to as Cognitive Testing) such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fifth Edition WISC V but no other measures were used. In contrast, a complete psycho-educational assessment usually consists of an intelligence test such as the WISCV and an achievement test such as the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test 3rd Edition (WIAT III) in combination with other behavioral and adaptive functioning measures. If your child undertakes just an intelligence Test then the Psychologist can still provide you and the school with an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses in Intelligence function such as practical or verbal strengths. Importantly, if you or the school are concerned regarding the possibility that your child suffers from a Specific Learning Disorder such as Dyslexia or other problems such as having an Intellectual Disability or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, then the Intelligence Test does not suffice in order for a diagnosis to be provided my your Psychologist. More specifically, for a diagnosis to be provided regarding a Specific Learning Disorder an understanding of your child’s academic abilities compared with their peers is required by using an achievement test such as the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Third Edition (WIAT III). On the other hand, if you are concerned that your child may suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder or an Intellectual Disability, it is often important to understand your child’s performance on behavioural and adaptive functioning measures. The behavioral measures may be questionnaires provided to you the parent and to your child’s school such as the Conner’s 3 Rating Scale if there are concerns regarding your child having Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. Alternatively, if the Psychologist is attempting to determine your child’s adaptive functioning (ie how they function with life skills in the real world) they may similarly provide questionnaires to you the parents and your child’s teacher such as the Adaptive Behaviour Assessment System Third Edition. Therefore, it is essential that as a parent or carer of your child it is important that you are aware of the purpose of the assessment such as either wanting to understanding if your child has particular diagnosis or to determine strengths and weaknesses. Lastly, following a decision on the purpose of the assessment ensure that the Psycho-educational assessment will include necessary assessment and questionnaire’s to provide adequate information to answer the specific question addressed.
In Working memory in Children (Part 1) the difference between Working Memory and Long term Memory was explored. It will now be addressed how is short-term and working memory different. When Psychologists refer to short-term memory we are referring to those situations that require a person to simply store information without manipulating in some mental way or doing something else at the same time. An example of verbal short-term memory is when we remember a telephone number. In contrast, working memory is when after using our visual short-term memory to remember math’s facts on a board such as 24+ 18 for a few seconds long enough to write them down, it is then our working memory that assists us to solve the problem. There are many ways that we can assist children that have working memory difficulties depending on their specific learning or emotional difficulties. For instance, a child with an anxiety disorder who has persistent worrying thoughts can be assisted by reducing distractions around them such as removing the posters in the classroom. This will assist their working memory not being overwhelmed with irrelevant information. In contrast, a child with an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder who has working memories difficulties may be assisted shortening the instructions to reduce the amount of information the child is expected to hold. Secondly, it can also be much more useful for this child to have timed bursts of academic effort of 5-10 minutes rather than a prolonged lesson. For a child that is diagnosed with Dyslexia or (Reading Disorder) these children normally take longer to process information, so if the teacher or parent speaks quickly this can negatively affect their ability to remember instructions. Speaking slowly can assist these children take in the information into their working memory more effectively. It can be also beneficial for these children if activities are shortened to reduce the impact on their working memory. For instance, only providing one assignment at a time, rather than handing out three assignments on the same day. In summary, there are many ways in which we can assist children with working memory difficulties become more effective learners within the classroom and home environment. In exploring these options children with learning difficulties as a consequence of poor working memory will be rewarded with higher academic achievement and improved mental health and wellbeing.
I am pleased to acknowledge that I have now being using the IPAD versions of Intelligence and academic testing for children and adults over the last year. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fifth Edition (WISC-V), The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults Fourth Edition, and the achievement test such as the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Third Edition (WIAT III) have been available for psychologists in Australia over the last year. However, some subtests of the achievement test are still required to be completed on paper version such as Spelling and Numerical Operations. At this point, The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-IV) which is part of a psycho-educational assessment for children in their early years is not available in IPAD version. In my opinion, there are several advantages that the IPAD version has over the pencil-paper format. Firstly, I have found that children and adults respond much more positively to the testing process as it makes the testing appears a less dauting task while still collecting the same information on their intelligence and academic ability such as reading, reading comprehension and maths. Secondly, for children that have fine motor difficulties they are likely to have less difficulty with IPAD tasks as they do not rely on their writing abilities. Therefore, a child with fine motor skill deficits which makes writing tasks difficult for them may find the IPAD version of testing assists them complete the task requested rather than focus on their writing deficits. In other words, the IPAD version should assist a child to feel more confident in a task that they previously may have struggled with if they had to rely on their writing deficits. Thirdly, the IPAD technology versions interpretation and scoring is much more efficient than the paper-pencil format allowing the Psychologist to at least provide some feedback regarding the child or adults strengths and weaknesses at the conclusion of the assessment session if considered appropriate. Lastly, if you are thinking about having your child or you are an adult seeking a psychoeducational assessment for learning difficulties you should consider the advantages of seeking IPAD technology for Psychological Testing.
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurological disorder that affects in most cultures approximately 5% of children and 2.5 % of adults. I often have parents or teachers talk to me about concerns they have regarding their child's/students' ability to maintain attention and concentration, and most worry that their child/student suffers from ADHD. They will often discuss with me that they are unclear about the process involved in an assessment for ADHD and what the treatment options are if the child is diagnosed with this condition. This four-part series will provide an understanding of ADHD and its subtypes as well as provide an insight into diagnosis and treatment available for attention difficulties. Children with ADHD often has poor inhibition, that is, they have difficulty in controlling inappropriate behaviour, thoughts and speech. They may exhibit, firstly, inattentive symptoms—characterised by wandering off tasks, lacking persistence, having difficulty sustaining focus and being disorganised. Secondly, they may exhibit hyperactivity symptoms, characterised by excessive fidgeting or tapping and talkativeness. Thirdly, they may exhibit impulsivity symptoms, characterised by interrupting or intruding on others as an impulse. It may be that your child has some or a combination of all these symptom types. A child that is hyperactive or impulsive is unlikely to learn effectively without introducing intervention strategies; otherwise they will disrupts others’ learning process as well. It is important to understand that for a group of symptoms to be suggestive of ADHD they must commence within childhood prior to the age of 12 years old and for a period of six months or more, rather than, say, two weeks. It is also necessary that the displays of inattention, hyperactivity or impulsivity have occurred in more than one setting; these displays would usually be at home and the school environment. It is likely that if your child/student only demonstrates these symptoms in one setting, this may allude to other psychological concerns such as learning or relationship difficulties. ADHD in children is associated with reduced school performance and academic achievement. This can also negatively affect peer relationships. In adults consequences of ADHD are often associated with poor job performance and achievement. Therefore, if your child/student has some of these difficulties, an ADHD assessment completed by a psychologist must be administered as early as possible. An ADHD test can assist you in understanding your child’s learning/behavioural needs. A reliable ADHD test can also provide recommendations and accommodations to assist them to learn in a more effective manner.
I often have people ask me if the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-IV) is part of an educational assessment for children in their early years. A psychoeducational assessment normally consists of an intelligence test such as the WPPSI-IV and an achievement test such as the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Third Edition (WIAT III). The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence has recently become available for use in Australia (by qualified psychologists) which is an updated version of the WPPSI-III.
An intelligence test such as the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence is useful for measuring your child’s strengths and weaknesses and can be essential component of a diagnosis of certain academic problems or strengths such as dyslexia, intellectual disability or giftedness.
The WPPSI-IVis an individually administered clinical tool for assessing cognitive ability of children 2.6 years through to 7 years and 7 months. The test provides a general intellectual ability score often referred to as your IQ score. It also provides information on different areas of intelligence such as verbal and practical intelligence.
The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence normally takes about 45-60 minutes to complete as part of an educational assessment. Normally a qualified psychologist would also administer other tests within an educational assessment that would normally be expected to take another hour in length. Scoring and writing a report by a qualified psychologist may take from 4 to 6 hours to complete.
There are five main components of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence called Verbal Comprehension, Visual Spatial, Fluid Reasoning, Working Memory and Processing Speed.
Verbal Comprehension measures your child’s understanding of words (receptive vocabulary). In comparison, Visual Spatial and Fluid Reasoning tasks measure your child’s practical ability; however, there is still some understanding of language required such as the ability to follow instructions. Working Memory assesses your child’s capacity to hold and manipulate information in their mind over short periods in an auditory and visual manner. Processing Speed is designed to measure how quickly your child can perform mental tasks.
The WPPSI-IV is often required to be completed to assist in determining if a child may benefit from early school entry as a consequence of giftedness. It may also be useful in assisting teachers with early identification of reading and learning/behavioural issues that may be present in a child. The WPPSI-IV is an important tool in psychoeducational assessments in Adelaide and is used by trusted educational psychology clinics.
It can often be difficult for teenagers to obtain employment following leaving school particularly if they struggle with a disability such as an Intellectual Disability or significant learning issues. To help, a psychological assessment can be arranged through a Disability Employment Network. This assessment can assist the employment consultant in understanding the disorder and be better informed about what employment type and conditions will suit them best. The psychological assessment will be conducted over approximately three hours with breaks. It consists of an intelligence test and, most importantly, a measure of their adaptive functioning skills. For instance, a young adult with a moderate intellectual disability may have difficulty remembering basic living skills such as showering without prompting. Obviously, if your young adult is having difficulties within this area, they will require assistance with these skills prior to being deemed job-ready. Alternatively, your teenager may be able to undertake these activities but require extra assistance from a support worker while attending the job location. For example, they may need ongoing assistance to travel to the employment location as they may have map reading difficulties or be unable to understand public transport timetables. In some situations an adult with an intellectual disability may require attending a supported employment setting so that they can receive ongoing support from suitably qualified disability/employment support workers with maintaining their employment goals. For instance, a young adult with an intellectual disability will take longer to learn and retain tasks related to their employment type. The young adult often will also require significant intervention with obtaining and maintaining relationships with others in the workplace. Just like they may experience difficulty understanding employment-related tasks, they can also have difficulty with social interventions. In my opinion, it is extremely important that the young adult is engaged in appropriate employment. It is well documented that having employment in some form is a beneficial factor in maintaining mental health for a variety of reasons, such as providing social interaction and a feeling of accomplishment and structure within the day. In summary, a psychoeducational assessment can provide your teenager/young adult with invaluable information regarding their strengths and weaknesses which will greatly assist a disability employment network determine how much support your teenager will require to obtain and maintain employment.
I often have parents discuss with me the confusion they feel regarding the diagnosis of a Specific Learning Disorder that their child may have and its impact on learning. One issue of potential misunderstanding is that Reading Disorder, Math’s Disorder and Written Expression Disorder are often referred to by alternative terms. It is often acknowledged that the Specific Learning Disorder (with impairment in written expression), also referred to as dysgraphia, can often be interpreted in a number of different ways. In clinical practice, dysgraphia can often either be motor-based (difficulties with fine motor skills which is treated by occupational therapists) or language-based. This section will be focusing on the latter. A key component of the Specific Learning Disorder (with impairment in written expression) is that the learning difficulties are unexpected since other aspects of your child’s development may appear within normal range. For a diagnosis of the disorder, a child’s written expression and/or spelling accuracy must be substantially lower than their same-age peers. Furthermore, this must be specific and is not the consequence of an intellectual disability, hearing or visual impairment or other neurological or motor disorders. If your child suffers from this disorder, they are likely to have significant difficulty with the process of writing and often finds it effortful and tiring. They may demonstrate poor sentence and paragraph structure. Moreover, they may have difficulty choosing the correct spelling alternatives or demonstrate difficulties spelling in context. Furthermore, it is likely that your child will demonstrate a significantly better verbal ability than written ability. It is also likely that your child’s difficulties become more apparent as the demands on writing ability increase through middle and upper primary school. There are a number of ways we can assist a child with a Specific Learning Disorder (with impairment in written expression) depending on their age and writing ability. For instance, if your child has difficulties with written expression, providing extra writing time and allowing rests when extended writing is required can be useful. It can also be useful to allow work to be produced on a word processor, with spell-checker and grammar checker available. Furthermore, as your child becomes older using a suitable software program to organise ideas for written work can be beneficial. Your child may also be assisted by providing them with writing guidelines and paragraph headings to support extended structured writing. Proving a template of a story can assist your child become familiar with story construction. Lastly, if you believe that your child has significant difficulties with their written expression, a learning difficulties assessment administered in an educational psychology clinic can assist you in understanding your child’s ability. A psychologist can also provide recommendations to assist your child in fulfil their written expression potential.
I often have parents discuss with me the confusion they feel regarding the diagnosis of a Specific Learning Disorder that their child may have and its impact on learning. One issue of potential misunderstanding is that Reading Disorder, Math’s Disorder and Written Expression Disorder are often referred to by alternative terms. For Reading Disorder, in particular, there is confusion regarding what defines disordered reading levels from a child with some reading difficulties. The Specific Learning Disorder (with impairment in reading) is often referred to as dyslexia. A key component of the diagnosis is that the learning difficulties are unexpected since other aspects of your child’s development may appear within normal range. For a diagnosis of the disorder, a child’s reading and/or spelling accuracy must be substantially lower than their same-age peers. If your child suffers from this disorder they are likely to have significant difficulty with word reading accuracy, reading rate or fluency (appear to struggle to get their words out) or reading comprehension (understanding what they have read). Furthermore, they may struggle to spell words accurately and may have a tendency to spell words as they sound rather than understanding the spelling rules such as spelling “right” as “rite”. Alternatively, they may also have difficulty with decoding skills such as understanding how to reproduce familiar and unfamiliar words. This often leads to your child having difficulties with reading accuracy. There are a number of ways we can assist a child with a Specific Learning Disorder (with impairment in reading) depending on their age and readings ability. If your child has difficulties with reading fluency, this is likely to interfere with their ability to understand what they are reading. In other words, your child is likely to be so tired from just reading the paragraph they retaining information they have read will be improbable. In this instance a useful recommendation can be to encourage your child to re-read the book, the first read through is to work out the actual words, the second read through is for understanding the story. Alternatively, if your child suffers from reading accuracy a number of accommodations could be instigated. For example, the teacher can save your child the ordeal of having to “read aloud in class”. Ensure reading is reserved for a quiet time with the class teacher. Secondly, your child will require more time to read questions and answers when completing assignments or tests. Lastly, a learning difficulties assessment can assist you understand your child’s reading ability and provide recommendations to assist them fulfil their reading potential. Dyslexia testing may be administered for your child in an educational psychology clinic.
I often have parents discuss with me the confusion they feel regarding the diagnosis of a Specific Learning Disorder that their child may have and its impact on learning. One issue of potential misunderstanding is that Reading Disorder, Math’s Disorder and Written Expression Disorder are often referred to by alternative terms. A Specific Learning Disorder (with impairment in mathematics), in particular, is sometimes referred to as dyscalculia. A key component of the diagnosis is that the learning difficulties are “unexpected” in that other aspects of your child’s development appear within normal range. A Specific Learning Disorder can only be reliably diagnosed by a psychologist after starting formal education. If your child suffers from this disorder, they are likely to have difficulty understanding simple number facts or procedures. For example, they may have difficulty solving basic maths problems using addition, subtraction, multiplication or division. This may be as a consequence of them not remembering what the symbols mean or that they cannot remember the steps involved in the maths equation. For example, a teenager given a person’s four exams scores of 70, 75, 80, and 65 may be unable to determine the individual’s average test score. In other words, they may struggle to understand how to solve the problem. If given the steps to solve this equation, your child is more likely to be successful. Alternatively, it may be that your child may be able to complete a maths addition problem but write the numbers in reverse so that instead of 61 they write 16. Lastly, they may have a poor memory for number facts such as knowing automatically that 7 times 7 equals 49. There are a number of ways we can assist a child with a Specific Learning Disorder (with impairment in mathematics) depending on their age and maths ability. For instance, research has demonstrated that cooperative learning is an effective way to reduce processing difficulties that are associated with maths anxiety. Therefore, it can be beneficial that your child has a classmate who can demonstrate how to arrive at the work-out answers so that they can see the steps that they go through to succeed in solving the problem. Additionally, if your child has some of these difficulties, a learning difficulties assessment completed in an educational psychology clinic can assist you in understanding your child’s learning needs and providing recommendations and accommodations to assist them learn in a more effective manner.
When children or teenagers present for a psychoeducational assessment, sometimes it is discovered that they are suffering from learning difficulties known as a Language Disorder. A Language Disorder often affects a child’s ability to use words to convey what they want to say. in other words, your child may have trouble processing and understanding the meaning of what other people say. It is acknowledged that 5 to 6% of school-aged children suffer from either a speech or language problem though this can vary considerably depending upon the region. If your child has a Language Disorder they may have difficulty following instructions or have short-term (auditory) memory problems and/or have a reluctance to ask questions. They may also be reluctant to contribute to classroom discussions. In the classroom, academically, your child may struggle with reading rate or have difficulty understanding what is meant in the paragraph they just read. This would be because children with a Language Disorder have a reduced word knowledge and understanding of how the words are used. It makes sense that if there are some words within a sentence that your child does not understand, it will be difficult for them to fully appreciate the underlying message within the text. I have also often had parents who are concerned with their child’s behaviour which may in fact relate to them having a Language Disorder. For instance, your child may have poor organisational skills and concentration or attention span. The teachers have often advised that the child has difficulty following verbal instructions and appears to fail to listen when spoken to. While all these symptoms are related to having a Language Disorder, parents often attend for psychologist session for alternative concerns such as attention deficit disorder, dyslexia or intellectual disability, since some of the symptoms present in a Language Disorder—such as slow reading rate—could present in dyslexia or intellectual disability. Children who have attentional or organisational problems may be suffering from attention deficit disorder. If you believe that your child may be suffering from any of the symptoms described, it is recommended that a multi-disciplinary approach be taken. A Language Disorder is normally diagnosed by a Speech Pathologist in combination with a psychoeducational assessment completed by a psychologist. A psychoeducational assessment by a psychologist can assist in eliminating other causes for your child’s academic difficulties such as dyslexia, intellectual disability or attention deficit disorder. A multi-disciplinary approach will assist you in achieving the most effective therapy for your child.
People often ask me if a Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fifth Edition (WISC-V) is part of a psychoeducational assessment. Then they often ask if this is an intelligence test. A psychoeducational assessment normally consists of an intelligence test such as the WISCV and an achievement test such as the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test Third Edition (WIAT III). The WISC-V has recently become available for use in Australia (by qualified psychologists) which is an updated version of the WISC IV. An intelligence test such as the WISC-V is useful for measuring your child’s strengths and weaknesses and can be essential component of the diagnosis of certain academic problems or strengths; as such it is important in various procedures such as dyslexia assessments and tests for intellectual disability or giftedness. The WISC-V is an individually administered clinical tool for assessing cognitive ability of children 6 years through to 16 years and 11 months. The test provides a general intellectual ability score often referred to as your IQ score. It also provides information on different areas of intelligence such as verbal and practical intelligence. The WISC-V normally takes about 1 to 2 hours to complete as part of a psychoeducational assessment. Normally a qualified psychologist would also administer others tests within a psychoeducational assessment such as an achievement test that would normally take an hour in length. Scoring and writing a report by a qualified psychologist may take from 4 to 8 hours to complete. There are five main components of the WISC-V called Verbal Comprehension, Visual Spatial, Fluid Reasoning. Working Memory and Processing Speed. Verbal Comprehension measures your child’s language understanding such as what is the meaning of words (vocabulary) and how are two words alike or similar. In comparison, Visual Spatial and Fluid Reasoning tasks measure your child’s practical ability; however, there is still some understanding of language required such as the ability to follow instructions. Working Memory assesses your child’s capacity to hold and manipulate information in their mind over short periods in an auditory and visual manner. In contrast, Processing Speed is designed to measure how quickly your child can perform mental tasks. Allowing a psychologist to administer these educational assessments, along with other tests such as dyslexia testing and adhd testing for your child, will help in the long run. A teacher may ask for a WISC-V to be completed either to provide early identification of reading and learning issues or to assist in identifying learning disabilities. Alternatively, it can be useful in diagnosing giftedness or assist schools make appropriate accommodations (such as increasing time allowed to complete a test or exam) and develop individual learning plans students.
I have parents say that they were told that their child has poor processing speed; they are often unsure what this means for their child’s learning. Processing speed can be measured using one of the standardized intelligence tests such as the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children (WISC-V), which is most commonly used by Australian psychologists. Processing speed relates to your child’s ability to perform simple and repetitive mental tasks quickly and automatically. Children with poor processing speed in the school setting take much longer than their peers to complete their work. They may also have trouble copying from the board. You may notice that your child struggles to complete their homework in a timely manner. A child with poor processing speed is also likely to have difficulty learning routines and completing tests or assignments in the required time. It is important to recognize, though, that your child’s poor processing speed is related to impaired speed and fluency of processing information rather than a lack of knowledge or understanding of material. There are many reasons why your child may have this problem; this needs to be addressed in order to assist your child’s academic progress. For instance, vision impairment, poor sleep/nutrition or fine motor skill difficulties that affect handwriting can all affect the speed and fluency of processing information. A child’s emotional state could also negatively affect on their ability to process information quickly. For example, if your child was highly anxious/perfectionist, lacked motivation to complete tasks or was plagued with inattentive behavior, their ability to complete tasks quickly may be affected. The classroom environment can also influence a child’s processing speed by potential distractions such as noise levels. A child’s poor processing speed may relate to a diagnosed medical condition or a neurodevelopmental disorder such as a Specific Learning Disorder, attention deficit disorder, autism or an underlying physical condition. It is important to recognize that your child with poor processing speed is not deliberately working in a slow manner; rather, it is likely that either medical or social/environmental factors are negatively affecting their ability to engage in a mental fluent rapid manner. In the next article, ways to assist your child with processing speed difficulties which affect their academic progress in maths and/or English language will be examined.
In the previous article, poor processing speed in children was addressed including the ways in which it can affect your child’s learning. To determine if your child’s inability to work quickly is related to poor processing speed, it is firstly necessary to engage a psychologist who is experienced in psychoeducational assessments. This psychoeducational assessment normally consists of an intelligence test (which tests the mental ability of your child) such as the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISCV) and a measure of academic achievement such as the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test for Children (WIATIII). Your child’s ability to process information quickly and fluently is measured as part of the intelligence test. Once it has been identified that your child has poor processing speed that is affecting their learning, there are a number of factors to consider. Does it co-occur with another disorder that may require a referral to a medical or health professional? For instance, difficulties in fine motor skills may negatively affect a child’s ability to write quickly; in this case, a referral to an occupational therapist to assist with handwriting techniques is recommended. For another, a child who suffers from inattentiveness may benefit from a referral to a pediatrician to establish the medical origin. Alternatively, a child who is identified with having poor processing speed as a consequence of perfectionistic/anxious tendencies may benefit from consulting with a psychologist to learn more constructive ways of managing negative thoughts. Once you have identified the medical or health interventions that may assist your child with their learning, there are also measures with which they can be assisted in the classroom. Processing speed can affect your child in a variety of ways which often can leave them feeling frustrated, tired and anxious. In class, providing more time to complete assignments and developing an individualized learning plan so that they can work at their own pace is useful. It is also important to reduce the volume of work, for instance, setting fewer maths problems. Note-taking expectations should be reduced which can be achieved by taking a photo with an iPad of the work for your child. Your child is also likely to benefit from a teacher who avoids providing long multi-step instructions. In summary, there are many ways that processing speed difficulties could be affecting your child’s general wellbeing and academic progress. A learning difficulties assessment completed in an educational psychology clinic will assist in determining the strengths and weaknesses of your child including their ability to work fluently and quickly.
I often have parents talk to me about being told by their child’s teacher that their child may have working memory difficulties. The parents are often confused by this, stating that they believe their child has an excellent memory. The problem is that the teacher and parents are talking about two different sorts of memory capacity. The parents are often referring to their child’s ability to retain information from a long time ago relative to their age. We refer to this memory as our long-term memory, of which there are a number of sub-groups including autobiographical and semantic. Most commonly, it is autobiographical (long-term) that parents are talking about, saying that their child can remember items such as where they went for their fifth birthday party. Sometimes they are also aware that their child has good semantic long-term memory—for example, remembering that Adelaide is the capital of South Australia. Instead of the long-term memory just discussed, your child’s teacher is most likely referring to your child’s capacity to hold and manipulate information in their mind over short periods of time. This is known as working memory, which can be auditory or visual in nature. An example of using working memory would be when completing a maths product when attempting to multiply together numbers 34 and 45 in a situation where you do not have a calculator or pen or paper. There is a limit to what you or your child’s working memory can hold. For example, for most of us, it is out of the question to multiply larger numbers such as 754 and 831 in our heads; this would require storage of more information that we can hold in working memory. Research indicates that most adults cannot hold more than six units of information in their working memory. There are a number of factors that can affect your child’s working memory ability, including distraction. Your child attempting to do something else at the same time as attempting to learn can also affect their working memory. These factors can have an impact on their ability to hold information in their working memory. In Part II, the differences between short-term memory and working memory will be addressed. We will also discuss ways to assist your child with working memory difficulties that are affecting their academic progress in maths or English.
A psychoeducational assessment is conducted by a qualified psychologist that investigates the learning potential and academic skill development of your child. It is common sense to assume that your teenager with average intelligence will be average for their age-group within maths and English domains. However, students often demonstrate that they have strengths and weaknesses in certain areas. There are many reasons why educational assessments in Adelaide are beneficial for your teenager at year 10 level. In South Australia, this period is often seen as a transition year for students, and many schools provide special programs for students as this level to assist them with subject choices and study skills. Therefore, understanding their strengths and weaknesses at this stage is an important part of the process. For example, if your child demonstrated through psychological testing that they were particularly strong in practical skills it may be that they would be better suited to selecting subjects and career choices that were “hands on” in nature. In year 10, students are often preparing for potential work experience opportunities which can be assisted if they are already aware of their own areas of strength. Educational assessments can also answer specific questions regarding your child’s learning and academic success at school. For instance, you may have noticed that your child does poorly on exams and timed tests. You may feel that your child is underachieving and wonder why this is occurring. Educational assessments can assist the teacher to decide whether your child would be better suited to verbal-based or practical-based subjects and therefore determine the best learning style for your child. In combination with this, psychoeducational assessments can determine in which subjects your child is likely to have success; this information will assist them with planning for relevant subject selection. It will also highlight if your child learns more effectively when information is presented either visually or verbally. Lastly, psychoeducational assessments can be useful in determining if your child has any short-term memory issues or problems with the speed of processing information which is negatively affecting their learning. Learning difficulties assessments could identify that your child suffers from a specific learning disorder that could be affecting their process at school. If such is the case, recommendations can be provided to ensure that your child is provided with the specific assistance they require. In summary, psychoeducational assessments can provide you and your child with invaluable information regarding their strengths and weaknesses which will greatly assist subject and career selection.
When I have children or teenagers presenting for psychoeducational assessments to diagnose for Specific Learning Difficulties, often one of the concerns is attention and concentration difficulties in combination with general complaints of tiredness or irritability. Prior to the educational assessment taking place, I will gather relevant information from the parents and the child/teenager including how much screen time they engage with during the day. I often discover that not only is the child required to use technology within the school setting depending on their year level but they will also often use technology as their main leisure activity at the end of the day; they usually watch television, play computer games, or view a series of YouTube videos. There are a number of advantages that technology brings for academic learning, such as providing children alternatives ways to learn. Children who have learning difficulties with either maths or English can choose from a variety of interactive computer software programs which could assist in making learning a fun experience instead of a challenge. Similarly, when the educational assessment highlights that a child has poor writing ability, they may be assisted by writing their assignments on a computer or laptop device. Given the good technology brings, we shouldn’t ignore that it also has some negative impacts on a child’s academic and general mental health. Firstly, there is much research regarding the amount of screen time and its negative effect on concentration and attention levels. I often have parents tell me that their child has more than eight hours sleep a night but still wakes up tired with poor attention and concentration issues at school. This may be as a consequence of overstimulation from technology during the day. More specifically, though they may be having enough quantity of sleep, the quality of sleep is being negatively affected. When I have suggested to parents that the child cease their screen use approximately two hours before bedtime, parents have commented that a significant positive change in behavior often occurs. Such changes include increased alertness and concentration and a decrease in irritability within the home setting. In my opinion, as a part of a psychoeducational assessment, the psychologist should know how much screen-time and exposure the child has when understanding the child’s academic and mental health and wellbeing.
In Part 1, we discussed that children presenting for a psychoeducational assessment to assess for Specific Learning Difficulties often acknowledge that one of the concerns is attention and concentration. This concern may be a result of how much screen time they have and how this affects their quality of sleep. I also highlighted some of the advantages and disadvantages of technology in education and general mental health and wellbeing. In this article, I will provide further examples of the pros and cons of technology that have become evident when completing a psychoeducational assessment to determine a child’s learning potential. One of the advantages of technology to academic learning is the efficiency of obtaining information. Children researching topics for an assignment can easily get information through the internet rather than spending time wading through a large quantity of textbooks. Also, a child who has poor spelling ability—perhaps discovered through an educational assessment, adhd testing or dyslexia testing they took—may be assisted by utilizing various spelling programs designed to correct typical dyslexia spelling errors. A lot of assisted technology that can be very useful for children or teenagers struggling academically is also available. For instance, there are computer softwares that write the words spoken, useful for individuals who struggle to write or use a laptop. There are also disadvantages to technology that can negatively affect a child’s mental health and wellbeing. Research in the last few years have discovered links between screen time and use and the child’s behavior. For instance, if a child views television/internet content with violent themes, they are more likely to act in an aggressive manner. In my practice, an effect that seems to become more common is that children who are heavily influenced by screen time appear to have more difficulty with social skills; they tend to interact poorly with others and have limited enjoyment in activities that are non-technology based. Children and teenagers are spending more time connecting with friends via the internet with a much lower focus on building relationships in a face-to-face manner, therefore limiting their skills in social situations that will be important later in life. In my opinion, it is important that the psychologist administering a psychoeducational assessment determine what impact technology is having on the child or teenager.
A psychoeducational assessment has many benefits, such as assisting the parent in determining if their child suffers from a Specific Learning Disorder (reading or maths), or if they have an Intellectual Disability which is affecting their ability to read write or complete maths-related tasks. It can also be useful in determining giftedness or behavioral issues such as attention deficit disorder. An educational assessment is often required when your child struggles with reading, spelling or writing. Perhaps they have trouble with numbers, time, symbols or maths equations. They may have difficulty sustaining attention or concentration, or it may be evident that they are unable to retain information at school or in the home setting; perhaps they are unable to remember more than one or two instructions at a time. I often recommend a WISC (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - 5th Edition), which provides important insights into the learning profile of children six years and older, and a WIAT (Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-2nd Edition). These combined tests provide a good overall indication of a student’s cognitive ability and academic achievement levels. The discrepancy of the test scores assist in providing a diagnosis/reason and plan of treatment for your child. The most common conclusion with an educational assessment is that a child has an average intelligence and is significantly below average in achievement, i.e. spelling, reading or maths. Other psychological tests are also commonly required to determine a specifi learning disorders; a dyslexia test may be administered for a child who exhibits difficulties in reading, for instance. An ADHD assessment may be administered for a child with attention issues. However, the most important reason for conducting educational assessments is to develop specific recommendations to assist your child’s progress within the school and home setting. As part of this process, one of the most important issues for the children and parents is to discover that their child’s struggles in the school system are not because they are “lazy”; rather they may just need to learn differently than others in the classroom. Children with learning difficulties often suffer from a lack of confidence. Counselling is often recommended to help individuals understand that they are not “stupid” or “lazy”—they simply learn differently! So, if you believe your child may benefit from an educational assessment, please get in touch with me at Waterman Psychology Services to ensure that everything is done to improve your child’s learning difficulties and capacity.
There are many benefits to having a vocational assessment completed by a registered psychologist if you are either:
A vocational assessment identifies and recommends vocational goals to help people find or return to meaningful employment. Many factors are considered in completing a vocational assessment, including employment history, education history, injury and medical background, psychological testing (ability and personality factors), employment preferences, retraining requirement for suitable roles and labour market considerations. A vocational assessment is usually performed by a registered psychologist who has an excellent understanding of the employment market and who provides a comprehensive report with a number of employment options.
There are a number of reasons why a vocational assessment provides an expert opinion regarding an individual’s career choice and why it is better than just completing a job questionnaire measure. Job questionnaires vary somewhat depending on their origin but usually are divided into similar categories as follow.
In my practice, I often see clients who have completed a job questionnaire that is divided into the categories detailed above. This may be an excellent base for career direction, but it has some significant limitations if not expanded on further.
For instance, an individual’s response may indicate that they are likely to be highly suited to the helping profession. This may suggest that being a registered nurse would be of significant interest to them. However, within a vocational assessment, it may be discovered that one of their work preferences is that they would prefer not to do shift work. In this case, it may be beneficial for them to look at an alternative allied health profession that provides them with a regular roster. Alternatively, an individual may indicate via the responses and clinical interview that being a school teacher could be a career path that interests them, but they have not considered that they have always been someone relatively shy that has difficulty talking in front of others.
In summary, a detailed vocational assessment will ensure that when determining suitable employment goals, all factors that could affect a person’s ability to achieve and perform these employment options have been considered.
A Specific Learning Disorder is considered to be a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects a child’s ability to learn or use specific academic skills—reading, writing or arithmetic—which are the foundations of academic learning. A key component of the diagnosis is that the learning difficulties are “unexpected” in that other aspects of their development appear within normal range. A Specific Learning Disorder can only be reliably diagnosed after starting formal education. There are a number of different types of Specific Learning Disorders such as dyslexia, dyscalculia and dysgraphia. Your child may present with the following symptoms with any of the above Specific Learning Disorder sub-types. For instance, your child may struggle with reading, spelling or writing. More specifically, they may have difficulty getting their thoughts down on paper. They also may mix up letters and/or jumble their sentences, or perhaps they have trouble with numbers, time, symbols or maths equations. For instance, they may often confuse addition for subtraction. It may also be apparent that they have difficulty remembering, have problems paying attention and have trouble following directions. They may often have an inconsistent school performance which often frustrates school teachers and parents alike. I have often had a parent state to me that “he knew this last week, why does he not understand today?’’ Your child may also have difficulties with staying organized and may demonstrate inappropriate responses in class or social situations. Many times I have experienced that a child referred to me was noted to be appearing withdrawn or not interested which was likely to be a consequence of not understanding the classroom activity rather than a deliberate attempt at being disruptive. However, there are many more children who suffer from learning difficulties rather than a specific learning disorder, which may present with some of the symptoms highlighted above. Research suggests that approximately 20 to 25% of children will struggle at school for a variety of reasons, but only about 5% of these children will suffer from a Specific Learning Disorder. An educational assessment completed in an educational psychology clinic can be useful in determining recommendations for your child with either Learning Difficulties or a Disorder. Specific recommendations can be created that apply directly to your child’s strengths and weaknesses.
In Part 1, it was acknowledged that a Specific Learning Disorder is considered to be a type of neurodevelopmental disorder that negatively affects a child’s ability to learn. Parents often state that there child may mix up letters and/or jumble their sentences. Perhaps they have trouble with numbers, time, symbols or maths. For instance, they may often confuse addition for subtraction. A psychoeducational assessment administered in an educational psychology clinic can assist in determining if these symptoms are as a consequence of a Specific Language Disorder or an alternative developmental/psychological condition. Prior to a psychoeducational assessment being completed, it is appropriate to determine if there are any medical factors that may affect your child’s learning. For instance, clarify that they do not have any eyesight or hearing problems which may negatively affect their learning potential. Following determination that there are no significant medical conditions that are affecting learning, a psychoeducational assessment can evaluate a number of reasons behind your child’s poor reading, spelling, writing, reading comprehension or maths ability. For example, your child may have difficulties with reading, spelling, writing or maths as a consequence of having difficulties with understanding language. If a child suffers from a language disorder, often parents report, “If I do not say something a certain way, they do not understand me”. A psychoeducational assessment will often demonstrate that a child in this situation has a significantly weaker verbal intelligence than practical intelligence. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - 5th Edition, which I use within my practice, has the following scales: Verbal Comprehension (Verbal IQ) and Visual Spatial, Fluid Reasoning (Practical IQ). However, it is important to understand that some language knowledge is also required for completion of the practical measures. If your child demonstrates these strengths and weaknesses on intelligence testing with impaired academic performance, a referral to a speech pathologist would be necessary to determine if a language disorder is present. Alternatively, your child may suffer from poor academic performance as a consequence of having overall difficulties in functioning, such as intellectual disability. A learning difficulties assessment can be useful in identifying working memory difficulties (ability to hold and manipulate information in your mind) or a lower processing speed (how fast your child can work with information) which can contribute to learning difficulties that your child may be experiencing.
WATERMAN PSYCHOLOGY SERVICES
The Edments Building , 38 Gawler Place, Level 2, Suite 218
Phone: 0405 967 620
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